Budgets are a large part of where the rubber meets the road, so to speak, like tires on a car. When you get down to looking at budgets, you’ll see what programs and initiatives have been prioritized for funding and where the resources are anticipated to come from.
Considerations: Fiscal Year and Period Length:
At each level there are budgets: federal, state, regional, local governments, education districts, not-for-profit organizations, foundations, and more. Keep in mind, there may be different start dates of fiscal years; for example, in federal government, many agencies operate from October 1st to September 30th; in county governments, many agencies operate from July 1st to June 30th; and non-profit organizations vary widely from calendar fiscal years, January 1st to December 31st, and almost everywhere in between. Also, some governments operate on biennial cycles (2 years) and in the State of Oregon it goes from July 1st of odd number years to June 30th of subsequent odd number years such as 2015-2017 and 2017-2019.
Federal Budget Process
In 2015, $3.18 Trillion came in via Personal, Payroll, and Corporate Taxes, plus a few additional taxes.
In 2015, $3.8 Trillion was budgeted for expenditures:
- Debt – $229.15 Billion (6.03% of the total)
- Mandatory Spending – $2.45 Trillion (64.63% of the total) incl. Legislated Spending ($1.25 Trillion for Social Security, Unemployment and Labor)
- Discretionary Spending – $1.11 Trillion (29.34% of the total) incl. Appropriations (Military $598.49 Billion, 53.71%)
In 2015, the US Government expected to borrow $583 Billion to make up the deficit (revenue vs expense), and paid back $229 Billion in interest.
State of Oregon Biennial (2-year) Budget
Nearly all states are required to have a BALANCED BUDGET. For Oregon’s specific detail,
Ballotopedia offers insights regarding Oregon’s BUDGET & FINANCES including comparisons with other states,
For an overview of Oregon’s state BUDGET PROCESS,
For a VISUAL GRAPHIC TIMELINE of Oregon’s state BUDGET PROCESS,
For details specific to the upcoming 2017-2019 BUDGET INSTRUCTIONS and plans underway,
For details regarding the LEGISLATIVE CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE,
There are three (3) steps in the budget process:
- Agency Request Budget (ARB) – Due by September 1st in the even numbered year, submitted by 188 agency directors to the Governor & CFO
- Governor’s Recommended Budget (GRB) – Due by January when the legislature meets in the odd numbered year, submitted by the Governor to the Legislature
- Legislatively Adopted Budget (LAB) – Due by July 1st in the odd numbered year, submitted from Joint Ways & Means Subcommittee and LFO (Legislative Fiscal Office) plus the Emergency Board meets in the interim
The State legislature determines the final approved budget in its process every two years, called the LAB (Legislatively Adopted Budget).
For 2015-2017, Oregon’s Biennial (2-year) LAB (Legislatively Adopted Budget) totaled $69.98 billion (roughly $34.49 billion per year, 4.4% increase from 2013-2015).
There are four (4) categories of FUNDING SOURCES in Oregon’s state budget including:
- General Funds – $17.985 Billion (26.1%)
- Federal Funds – $21.561 Billion (31.3%)
- Lottery Funds – $0.914 Billion (1.3%)
- Other Funds – $28.523 Billion (41.3%)
There has yet to be identified a single document detailing the specifics of funding sources within each of these categories, but here are some rough insights:
GENERAL FUNDS totaling $17.985 Billion (26.1% of the total)
- 87%, $TBD estimated to come from Personal Income Tax
- 6%, $TBD estimated to come from Corporate Income Tax
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from Cigarette Tax
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from Estate Tax
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from Liquor Apportionment Transfer
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from Rainy Day Fund Carryover
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from Education Stability Fund Carryover
FEDERAL FUNDS totaling $21.561 Billion (31.3% of the total)
- TBD%, $18.5B estimated to come from Human Services allocations ($11.5B to OHA, $7B to DHS, $12M to Commission for the Blind, $2.8M to Veterans Assistance)
- TBD%, $1.5B estimated to come from Education allocations
- TBD%, $528M estimated to come from Economic Development allocations ($253M for Employment, $232M for Housing, $45M for Business Development)
- TBD%, $501M estimated to come from Public Safety allocations ($278M for Military, $158M for Justice, $36M for OYA, $10M for Police, $8.7M for Criminal Justice Commission, $7M for Corrections, $7M for Marine, $5M for DPSST)
- TBD%, $293M estimated to come from Natural Resource allocations ($139 for Fish & Wildlife, $63M for Land Conservation, $37M for Watershed, $35M for Forestry, $29M for Env. Quality, $15.6M for Agriculture, $12M for Parks, $3.3M for Energy, $1.3M for Water, 700K for PUC)
- TBD%, $140M estimated to come from Transportation allocations (incl. $12M for Aviation)
- TBD%, $19M estimated to come from Consumer & Business Services allocations (incl. $8M for Secretary of State, $1.8M for BOLI, $5.8M for Geo/Min)
- TBD%, $11M estimated to come from Administration allocations (incl. $5M for Oregon State Library)
- TBD%, $1.6M estimated to come from Judicial allocations
LOTTERY FUNDS totaling $0.914 Billion (1.3% of the total)
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from Game Ticket Sales
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from Video Lottery Sales
OTHER FUNDS totaling $28.523 Billion (41.3% of the total)
- TBD%, $TBD estimated to come from State Agency Collected Fees (keep in mind spending for many of these has restrictions)
In terms of how the money is spent, there are various breakdowns.
There are four (4) categories of PROGRAMS in Oregon’s Biennial LAB including:
- Human Services – $29.696 Billion (43.1% of the total)
- Education – $12.565 Billion (18.2% of the total)
- Public Safety / Judicial – $4.307 Billion (6.2% of the total)
- All Other – $22.416 Billion (35.2% of the total)
In addition, the following End Balance Projections are noted:
- $310.3M General Fund including Rainy Day Fund $180M
- $16.1M Lottery Fund
- $18.1M Measure 76 Lottery Fund dedicated for Natural Resources, Parks and Recreation
OHA (Oregon Health Authority, a state agency) Budget in Development
Oregon Health Authority has a Budget & Legislative page,
For 2016-2017, the Agency Priorities
For 2016, the Legislative Wrap-Up
For 2015, Disability Rights Oregon offers a Legislative Wrap-Up
Federal CMS (Centers for Medicaid & Medicare) Spending in Oregon
At this time, the known data regarding Oregon’s MEDICAID spending is $6.8 Billion from October 2013-September 2014 (federal fiscal year).
At this time, the known data regarding Oregon’s MEDICARE spending is $4.9 Billion from October 2008-September 2009 (federal fiscal year).
National Health Expenditure Data
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